An ecological perspective on development posits that distal influences on development have an indirect though nonetheless crucial influence on development (see Brofenbrenner & Morris, 1998). For immigrant origin children and youth, five influences are particularly salient: 1-the global forces that precipitate (im)migration; 2-political and social contexts of reception; 3- national and local immigration policies; and 4-refugee and asylee policies and programs; and 5-social attitudes towards (im)migrants.

Distal Levels of Development